“When the well is dry, we learn the worth of water.”
Benjamin Franklin
     
  Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, water vapor or steam.  
   
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Water Softeners

Water softening

Water containing significant amount of calcium and magnesium is called hard water. Hard water can clog pipes, damage boilers, heat exchangers, to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water and many other devices.

Water softening is technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Calcium and magnesium are often referred to as hardness mineral. Irons ions may be also be removed during softening.

Water softening is an important process, because the hardness of water in different applications is reduced during this process.

Water softener

A Water softener is a unit that is used to soften water, by removing the minerals that cause the water to be hard.Water softening is an important process, because the hardness of water in different applications is reduced during this process. Hard water causes a higher risk of lime scale deposits in industrial, commercial and household water systems. Water softening can prevent these negative effects.

Softening salts

For water softening, 3 types of salt are used

  • Rock salt
  • Evaporated Salt
  • Solar Salt

Salt is usually added to the reservoir during regeneration of the softener. The more often a softener is regenerated, the more often salt needs to be added.

Rock salt as a mineral occurs naturally in the ground. It is obtained from underground salt deposits by traditional mining methods. It contains between 98 and 99 % sodium chloride.

Solar salt as a natural product is obtained mainly through evaporation of seawater. It contains 85% sodium chloride.

Evaporated salt is obtained through mining underground salt deposits of dissolving salt. The moisture is then evaporated, using energy from natural gas or coal. Evaporated salt contains between 99.6 and 99.99%sodiumchloride.

To guarantee a satisfactory production of soft water, the salt level should be kept at least half-full at all times.